Timeline of Entomology

This is a work in progress, based on Wikipedia, and all information should be considered subject to verification.

This is an outline only, which I will gradually rework and expand over time.



Timeline of Entomology (work in progress, based on Wikipedia)


13,000 BC

The earliest evidence of man’s interest in insects is from rock paintings. The insects depicted are bees.

1800–1700 BC

  • Bees were significant in other early civilisations, for instance at MaliaCrete, where jewellery depicts two golden bees holding a drop of honey.

620–560 BC

343 BC (circa]

  • Aristotle writes History of Animals In this work Aristotle includes insects in a class “Entoma” which also includes the arachnids and the myriapods but not the Crustacea which formed another class “Malacostraca” of the “Anaema” or “bloodless animals.” (“Insecta” is the Latin translation of Aristotle’s εντομον (Entomon)Parts of Animals on zoological anatomy followed. For nearly 2000 years the few writers who dealt with zoological subjects followed Aristotle’s leading.

70 BC+

77–79 AD


  • Rabanus Maurus authors the encyclopaedia De rerum naturis “On the Nature of Things”
  • Shen Kuo described the role of predatory insects in protecting crops from insect pests.



  • Thomas of Cantimpré writes Liber de natura rerum an encyclopedia of natural history

    From a 1481 edition of Thomas, de Cantimpré, Das Buch der Natur (Book of nature)

    From a 1481 edition of Thomas de Cantimpré, Das Buch der Natur (Book of nature)






  • Konrad of Megenberg Buch der Natur. The first natural history in the German language. The section “Von den Würmen”. Written in 1350, Buch der Natur was first printed in moveable type in 1475. NCSU Libraries owns a fragment of the fourth describes insects—both real and imaginary—and reptiles.








  • Although the earliest pictorial record of a natural history cabinet is the engraving in Ferrante Imperato‘s Dell’Historia Naturale (Naples 1599) such collections became more than rudimentary early in this century.


  • Ulisse Aldrovandi’s Animalibus insectis libri septem, cum singulorum iconibus AD vivum expressis published. This work was devoted to the insects and some other invertebrates.


  • Jacob Hoefnagel Diversae Insectarum Volatium icones ad vivum accuratissimè depictae per celeberrimum pictorem. (Amsterdam), Nicolao Ioannis Visscher.




  • Joannes Jonstonus Theatrum Universale Omnium Animalium: Insectorum, Tabulis Viginti Octo ab Illo Celeberrimo Mathia Meriano, Aeri Incisis Ornatum ex Scriptoribus tam Antiquis, Quam Recentioribus – Heilbrunnensis: Franciscus Iosephus Eckebrecht, 1757 (Heilbrunnensis : Ioh. Adami Sigmundi): a compilation of Konrad Gesner’s (1516–1565) and Ulisse Aldrovandi’s (1522–1605) natural histories but plates engraved by Matthäus Merian.




1662 – (Between 1662 and 1667)

  • Jan Goedart publishes Metamorphosis and historia naturalis illustrating, by copper plate engravings, the metamorphosis of various insects.



  • Erasmus Finx Erasmi Francisci Ost- und West- Indischer wie auch Sinesischer Lust- und Stats-garten mit Einem Vorgespräch von Mancherley Lustigen Discursen; in Drey Haupt-theile Unterschieden. Nürnberg In verlegung J. A. Endters und Wolfgang dess jüngern sel. erben.
  • Francesco Redi proves that insects do not arise through spontanwous generation but from eggs laid by fertilized females.



  • Johann Daniel Major Catalogus oder Index Alphabeticus von Kunst, Antiquitäten, Schatz und fürnehmlich Naturalien-Kammern, Conclavia, Musea, Repositoria, oder auch nur kleinere Serinia Rerum Naturalium Selectorum, Kiel: outlines a collection strategy for museums and lists collections.


  • Bohuslav Balbín begins Miscellanea historica regni Bohemiae with Liber naturalis – the Nature of Bohemia which contains notes on insects.


  • Ole Borch Dissertationes academicae de poetis.


  • Jan Goedart Wikisite in French publishes De Insectis, in methodum redactus, cum notularum additione. Opera M.Lister; item appendicis ad historiam Animalium Angliae.
  • Anton Leeuenhoek publishes Arcana Naturae Detecta.


  • Steven Blankaart Schou-Burg der Rupsen, Wormen, Maden en Vliegende Dierkens daar uit voortkomende. Door eigen ondervindinge by een gebragt in English– Showplace of caterpillars, worms, maggots and flying things, published in Amsterdam.


  • Filippo Bonanni Observationes circa Viventia, quae in Rebus non Viventibus
  • Observationes circa Viventia, quae in Rebus non Viventibus an important work.


1696 – (from 1696 to 1700)

  • Antonio Vallisneri’s Dialoghi will sopra the curiosa Origine di molti Insetti, in English, “Dialogues on the curious origin of several insects”, in which he, with Francesco Redi and Malpighi, contradicts the theory of spontaneous generation of maggots.

The development of entomology in the 18th century

In the 18th century three kinds of entomological text appeared. Firstly there were illustrative works – showy insects often beautifully coloured whose purpose was sensual. An example is afforded by Maria von Merian’s Metamorphosis Insectorum Surinamenis (1705).

Secondly were descriptive and systematic (classificatory) works usually confined to what are now known as the Insecta. Of the second kind Carl von Linne’s Systema Naturae published in 1758 at Uppsala stands proud. In this work the binomial system was finally settled on.

Thirdly were works on developmental biology (life cycles), internal anatomyphysiology and so on. These often covered other invertebrate groups. An example is René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur’s Memoires pour Servir a L’Historie des Insectes.





  • Maria Sybilla Merian Metamorphosis Insectorum Surinamenis (Transformations of the insects of Surinam) published by G. Valck in Amsterdam. It is a masterpiece of both art and science and Maria Merian, “the mother of entomology”, was the first to record the full life cycle of many species of butterflies and moths.
  • John Ray publishes Methodus Insectorum.


  • John Ray publishes Historia insectorum in English, Study of Insects. This is the first attempt at a systematic classification of insect species.
  • Francois Xavier Bon de Saint Hilaire writes on the use of spider silk as a textile. This was the first such research.


  • James Petiver publishes a book on British butterflies entitled Papilionum Brittaniae.



  • Moses Harris (1730–1788) born in England. Harris was a pioneer of the use of wing venation in insect systematics.


  • Mark Catesby publishes part one of The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands.


  • Scientist René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur publishes the first Mémoires pour Servir à L’Histoire des Insectes in English, “Memoirs Serving as a Natural History of Insects”. This is a founding work of entomology, and one of the most important of all zoological works of the 18th century.


  • Microscopist Jan Swammerdam‘s Biblia naturae or “Book of Nature” is reissued. Describing his studies of insects, it is a founding work of entomology.



  • John K’Eogh publishes Zoologica Medicinalis Hibernica, in English, “Zoological Medicine in Ireland”.



  • Johann Christian Fabricius (1745–1808) is born. Fabricius worked on all insect orders.
  • Charles Bonnet published his first work on entomology. Entitled Traité d’insectologie, it collected together his various discoveries regarding insects.



  • Georg Dionysus Ehret publishes first part of Plantae et Papiliones Depictae.
  • James Dutfield publishes English Moths and Butterflies.


  • Benjamin Wilkes publishes English Moths and Butterflies.
  • Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière (1749–1788) commenced— 36 volumes and 8 additional volumes published after his death by Bernard Germain Étienne comte de La Ville-sur-Illon La Cépède. Until the publication of this encyclopedia it was thought that all animals were created together by God about 6,000 years ago. Not only did this 44 volume encyclopedia contain all biological knowledge of its time, it offered a different theory. 100 years before Darwin, Buffon claimed that man and ape might have a common ancestor. His work also had significant impact on ecology.





  • Tenth edition of Carl LinnaeusSystema Naturae published. World explorers brought back to Europe so many exotic plant and animal specimens that chaos loomed for the 18th-century naturalists attempting to identify, classify, and communicate what they had gathered. Linnaeus made a great contribution to science by developing systems of classification to organize these processes. His principles of organization, especially his system of binomial nomenclature, provided essential tools for entomology. The tenth edition (1758–59), was chosen as the starting point for zoological nomenclature.



  • Naturalist and engraver Pieter Lyonnet publishes a monograph on the goat-moth caterpillar, containing details and illustrations of dissections. It is one of the best illustrated books on anatomy ever produced and describes over 4,000 muscles.


  • Jacob Hübner (1761–1826) born. Jacob Hübner was the first great world lepidopterist. Before Hübner it was held that there were few genera of Lepidoptera, a view he overthrew. His definitions of genera are among the best of the time and so were his classifications.
  • Christiaan Sepp publishes Nederlandische Insecten, in English, “Dutch insects”.


  • Giovanni Antonio Scopoli publishes Entomologica Carniolica.
  • Johann Wilhelm Meigen (1763–1845) born. Meigen began to work on Diptera at the age of twenty five. The first specialist in Diptera Meigen described a vast number of European species and his work on gross taxonomy laid the foundations of the present higher classification of theOrder. Unlike his Swedish contemporary Carl Friedrich Fallen he based higher categories on a combination of characters not following Fabricius in using mouthpart characters alone. This new approach was controversial.
  • Centuria Insectorum by Carl Linnaeus defended as a thesis by Boas Johansson


  • Carl Friedrich Fallen (1764–1830) born. Johann Christian Fabricius attended Linnaeus’s lectures on natural classification. He was one of Linnaeus’ most important pupils.
  • Étienne Louis Geoffroy published Histoire des Insectes.



  • Moses Harris publishes The Aurelian or Natural History of English Insects, namely Moths and Butterflies. This was the first book on the British Lepidoptera. Harris was a pioneer in using wing venation in insect systematics. A more modern revision did not appear until 1803.



  • Johann Reinhold Forster publishes A Catalogue of British Insects at Warrington, England — “This catalogue contains 1000 insects; the Swedes have near 1700, it would therefore be an honour to this country to scrutinize carefully into the various branches of Natural History, and to give the public as perfect and extensive catalogues of British Animals as possible”.
  • Dru Drury, 1770–1782 Illustrations of natural history, wherein are exhibited figures of exotic insects, a three-volume work commenced at London.
  • Christian Rudolph Wilhelm Wiedemann (1770–1840) born. He was a specialist in Diptera (world species).


  • Johann Reinhold Forster produces first list of American insects.




  • John Coakley Lettsome The naturalist’s and traveler’s companion, containing instructions for collecting and preserving objects of natural history and for promoting inquiries after human knowledge in general, London: E. and C. Dilly (1774): a much used work on collecting.


  • First part of Pieter Cramer‘s 1775–82 De Uitlandische Kapellen (Papillons Exotiques de Trois Partes de Monde published.
  • Johann Christian Fabricius’ Systema entomologica published.

1776 Otto Friedrich Müller published Zoologiae Danicae Prodromus.



  • Jacob Christian Schäffer Icones insectorum circa ratisbonam indigenorum coloribus naturam referentibus expressaepublished.




  • Encyclopédie Méthodique commenced. Its popularity and ubiquity later ensuring the entomological tableau which appeared from 1817 onwards had a wide audience.
  • Clas Bjerkander Insect-Calender, för år 1781. Kongliga Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar 3 (4-6): 122-132. Stockholm.



  • Publication, in Berlin, of Carl Gustav Jablonsky and Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst Natursystem aller bekannten in- und ausländischen Insecten, als eine Fortzetsung der von Büffonschen Naturgeschichte. Nach dem System des Ritters Carl von Linné bearbeitet or, in English, “Natural system of all well-known in [Europe] and foreign Insects, as a continuation of Buffon’s natural history. After the system of the honoured master, Carl von Linné”. This is a superbly illustrated work on world and European Coleoptera. Jablonsky was private secretary to the Queen of Prussia.
  • Johann Wilhelm Zetterstedt (1785–1874) born. Zetterstedt worked mainly on Diptera.
  • Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy Entomologia Parisiensis, sive, Catalogus insectorum quae in agro Parisiensi reperiuntur …, co-written with Étienne Louis Geoffroy, published in this year, was a major contribution to systematic entomology.




  • Linnean Society of London founded. The Society published many important works on insects.
  • Caspar Stoll Representation des Spectres ou Phasmes, des Mantes…Sauterelles des Grillons et des Blattes published. This work contains beautiful plates of praying mantis species.
  • Guillaume-Antoine Olivier Entomologie ou Histoire Naturelle des Insectes, avec leurs Caracteres Generiques et Specifiques, leur Description, leur Synonomie et leur Figure Illuminee. Coleopteres. commenced publication in Paris. The first volumes preceded Latreille’s in time and the system used was a combination of Linne and Fabricius.
  • Johann Wilhelm Meigen commences study of Diptera.


  • Johann Jacob Roemer Genera Insectorum Linnaei et Fabricii, Iconibus Illustrata published.
  • Carl Peter Thunberg Dissertatio Entomologica Novas Insectorum species sistens, cujus partem quintam. Publico examini subjicit Johannes Olai Noraeus, Uplandus. Upsaliaepublished.
  • Johann Kaspar Füssli Neue Magazin für Liebhaber der Entomologie (last part 1786).
  • Charles Joseph Devillers publishes Caroli Linnaei entomologia


  • John Curtis (1791–1862) born.
  • Johann Ludwig Christ publishes Naturgeschichte, Klassifikation und Nomenklatur der Insekten vom Bienen, Wespen und Ameisengeschlecht.



  • The Dublin Society purchases the natural history collection of Nathaniel Gottfried Leske containing 2,500 species of insects from Europe and the “rest of the World”. The sale catalogue was titled Museum Leskeanum. Pars entomologica ad systema entomologiae. CL. Fabreicii ordinata etc.. Leske was from Leipzig and the collection contained (s) Johann Christian Fabricius’ and Johann Friedrich Gmelin‘s types as well as his own.
  • Edward Donovan The Natural history of British Insects commenced publication in London.
  • Josef Aloys Frölich, Bemerkungen über einige seltene Käfer aus der Insektensammlung des Herrn Hofr. und Prof. Rudolph in Erlangen.Der Naturforscher 26: 68-165, Halle.




  • John Abbot and James Edward Smith The Natural History of the Rarer Lepidoptera of Georgia. A masterwork with than 100 beautifully coloured plates.
  • Pierre André Latreille. Precis des Caracteres Generiques des Insectes disposes dans un Ordre Naturel published. It proposed “ Natural classes and genera are based not only on the mouthparts, the wings or the antennae, but on careful observation of the entire structure, even of the smallest differences”.
  • Jean Victoire Audouin (1797–1841) born.



1800 – an arbitrary date but it was around this time that systematists began to specialise. There remained entomological polyhistors – those who continued to work on the insect fauna as a whole.
From the beginning of the century, however, the specialist began to predominate, harbingered by Johann Wilhelm Meigen‘s Nouvelle classification des mouches à deux aile (New classification of the Diptera) commenced in the first year of the century. Lepidopterists were amongst the first to follow Meigen’s lead. The specialists fell into three categories. First there were species describers, then specialists in species recognition and then specialists in gross taxonomy. There were however considerable degrees of overlap. Also then, as now, few could entirely resist the lure of groups other than their own, and this was especially true of those in small countries where they were the sole ‘expert’, and many famous specialists in one order also worked on others. Hence, for instance, many works which began as butterfly faunas were completed as general regional works, often collaboratively.
“Man is born not to solve the problems of the universe, but to find out where the problem begins, and then to restrain himself within the limits of the comprehensible” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Conversations with Eckerman: Feb. 13, 1829


  • Publication of Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de Lamarck. Système des animaux sans vertèbres ou tableau général des classes, des ordres et des genres de ces animaux. Paris:Deterville in English, ‘System of invertebrate animals or general table of classes, orders and genera of these animals’
  • Johan Christian Fabricius Systema eleutheratorum commenced. In a series of successive works to 1806 Johann Christian Fabricius developed a classificatory system based entirely on the structure of the mouthparts.
  • Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger‘s Magazin für Insectenkundeor Insect Magazine commenced in Brunswick (last issue 1856). One of the first insect magazines.
  • Marie Françoise Xavier Bichat. Traité d’anatomie descriptive, in English, ‘Treatise on descriptive anatomy published in Paris’. This work laid the foundations of a unified structural terminology.
  • The Aurelian Society meets in London “To form a complete and standard cabinet of the entomological productions of Great Britain:- to ascertain their names, uses, and distinctions:-the places and times of their appearance, food economy and peculiarities :- and to point out to the public the readiest and most desirable methods of destroying such as possess properties that are inimical to the welfare of mankind”
  • First part of Pierre André Latreille‘s Historie naturelle, générale et particulièredes crustacés et des insects in English, ‘General and particular natural history of crustaceans and insects’, published in Paris by Dufart. 5817 pp.(14 volumes last published in 1805). In this and succeeding works (1806–1809, 1810, 1825, 1829 Latreille, following Linnaeus, divides the insects into Orders(at first these are called classes), invented the important family concept and also the tribus, proposed the families Asilidae, Muscidae, Syrphidae andTabanidae (Diptera) as supra generic and erected the insect orders: Parasita, Perliarae, Megaloptera and Panorpatae. This is an important work of higher classification.
  • Lamarck and Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus, separately proposed term “biology” for the whole science of living things.
  • Pietro Rossi becomes the world’s first professor of entomology in Pisa.


  • Charles Nicolas Aubé born.


  • Johann Christian Fabricius Rhyngotorum secundum ordines…Reichard, Brunsvigae. Published.
  • Adrian Hardy Haworth Lepidoptera Britannica (1803–1828) published. This was the most authoritative work on British butterflies and moths until Henry Tibbats Stainton ‘s Manual in 1857.
  • Johann Rudolph Schellenberg Genres des mouches Diptères représentés en XLII planches projettées, dessinées et expliquées par deux amateurs de l’entomologie published inZürich.
  • Jakob Heinrich Laspeyres Kritische Revision der neuen Ausgabe des systematischen Verzeichnisses von den Schmetterlingen der Wienergegend.Braunschweig, Karl Reichard.


  • Jacob Hübner Sammlung Europaischer Schmetterlinge, in English, ‘Collection of European Butterflies’, published in Augsburg.
  • Caspar Erasmus Duftschmid Fauna Austriae, in English, ‘Austrian fauna’ commenced publication.
  • Jacob Sturm Deutschlands Insecten, Käfer, in English, ‘German Insects, Beetles’ commenced. This work was not completed until 1856. Like many insect faunal works, this was planned to cover all orders but got no further than beetles.
  • Thomas Marsham. Entomologica Britannica sisterns Insects Britanniae Indigena Secundum Linneum disposita in English, ‘British Entomology comprising native British insects disposed (according to) Linnaeus’ second edition. The first British beetle fauna this work treated Coleoptera only.
  • Jean Frederick Hermann Mémoire Aptérologique’published by F.L. Hammerin Strasbourg.



  • Carl August Dohrn born in Germany (States)
  • Anders Gustaf Dahlbom (1806–1859) born in Sweden.
  • Pierre André Latreille Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum Secundum Ordinem Naturalem in Familias Disposita, Iconibus, Exemplisque Plurimus Explicata 4 vols. Paris 1257pp. commenced, completed 1809. Latreille wrote a series of works each revising his previous classification. All are important work of higher classification.
  • Jacob Hübner. Tentamen determinationis, digestionis atque demonstrationis singularum stirpium Lepidopterorum, peritis ad inspiciendum et disjudicandum communicatum. published in Augsberg. In English, the title reads ‘Preliminary examination. An attempt to fix, arrange and name the individual races of Lepidoptera to experts for examination and the expression of an opinion’. As its title states, this was a discussion document. Inadvertently published, it led to subsequent nomenclatural confusion.
  • Maximilian Spinola Insectorum Liguriae etc. published in Genoa, Italy.
  • André Marie Constant Duméril, 1806 Analitische Zoologie. Published in both French and German. This was an important text for its methodology of classification. It is also animportant work of higher classification.



  • Publication date of Johann Cristoph Friedrich Klug Die Blattwespen nach ihren Gattungen und Arten zusammengestellt. Mag. Ges. Naturf. Freunde, in English, ‘The leaf wasps arranged according to their genera and species’.
  • Guillaume-Antoine Olivier Entomologie, ou Histoire naturelle des Insectes. Coléoptères.


  • Lamarck’s views on evolution were fully elaborated in his Philosophie zoologique in which he also arranged animals according to relationships and was first to employ the genealogical tree.



  • Gustaf von Paykull, Monographia Histeroidum Suecicae published in Upsalla. A monograph is a very complete work on a restricted subject, in this case Histeridae. This is one of the first entomological monographs.
  • Kurimoto Masayoshi Kurimoto’s Iconographia Insectorum or Insects of Japan published.


  • Birth of the entomologist Mary Ball.
  • Volume 1 of the Transactions of the Entomological Society of London published (though the Society officially dates from 1832)



  • William Elford Leach, Zoological Miscellany begun at London.
  • Carl Fredrik Fallén, Diptera Sueciae, in English, Diptera of Sweden published at Lund. Fallén’s 484 page “Dissertation” this specialist work was published between 1814 and 1825


  • William Elford Leach founded the orders Phasmida, Anoplura, Thysanura and Rhaphidides; the hemipterous families Pentatomidae, Coreidae, Belostomidae; the dipterous family Tipulidae and the hymenopterous family Chrysididae and published the first bibliography of entomology in Brewster’s Edinburgh Encyclopedia.
  • William Kirby and William Spence (entomologist), Introduction to entomology or elements of the natural history of insects. 4 vols. London, Longman 2430pp. This masterwork commenced in 1815 and was completed in 1826.It is an outstanding achievement:an entomology and a system of higher units in which Kirby was much influenced by MacLeay. By 1818 it was in its third edition, one of the most popular scientific works of all time.
  • Johann Friedrich Eschscholtz embarks on the Russian expeditionary ship “Rurik”1815-1822
  • Publication of Tome 1 of Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de Lamarck’s Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres.. completed with Tome 7 in 1822. Paris, Verdiere.


  • Jacob Hübner Verzeichniss bekanuten schmetterlinge,in English, Catalogue of known butterflies published at Augsberg.
  • Marie Jules Cesar Lelorgne de Savigny, Mémoires sur les animaux sans vertèbrespublished at Paris.
  • Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville Prodrome d’une nouvelle distribution systématique du règne animal Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris
  • Royal Saxony School of Forestry established at Tharandt. The school taught entomology and later the dipterist Samuel Friedrich Stein became its Director.
  • First issue of Oken ‘s Isis, eine encyclopädische Zeitschrift, vorzüglich für Naturgeschichte, vergleichende Anatomie und Physiologie published.


  • First volume of Thomas Say‘s American entomology published in Philadelphia. The pioneering work of American entomology. Some of the illustrations were undertaken by Titian Peale .
  • Carl Rheinhold Sahlberg, Dissertatio entomologica insecta Fennica enumerans (Coleoptera) commenced. First work on the Coleoptera of Finland. Due to the efforts of Paykull, Leonard Gyllenhaal and Sahlberg the beetles of Scandinavia were better known than in any comparable area at this date.


  • Johann Wilhelm Meigen Systematische Beschreibung der Bekannten Europäischen zweiflugen Insecten 7 vols. Aachen and Hamm 2869pp., in English, Systematic Descriptions of known European Two-winged Insects commenced. The seven volumes spanned the years 1818-1830. Nouvelle classification des mouches à deux ailes. Paris. New classification of the Diptera had already appeared, published in Paris.
  • Carl Gustav Carus Lehrbuch der Zootomie. Leipzig. Lehrbuchs are student texts. This one is on anatomy, mainly dissection.
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Suckow Anatomisch-physiologische Untersuchungen der Insecten und Krustenthiere. 70 S. mit 11 Kupfern. Engelmann, Heidelberg.


  • George Samouelle publishes A nomenclature of British Entomology, or a catalogue of above 4000 species of the Classes Crustacea, Myriapoda, Spiders, Mites and insects intended as labels for cabinets of Insects, etc., alphabetically arranged at London.



  • John Fleming Insecta. In: Supplement to the fourth, fifth and sixth editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica, with preliminary dissertations on the history of the sciencesan important systematic work.



  • Philipp Franz von Siebold begins natural history studies in Japan. Some of his many Japanese students take up entomology. The species they discovered were described in European journals without explicit attribution. They are honoured here. The invertebrate volume of Siebold’s Fauna Japonica was undertaken by Wilhem de Haan
  • Johann Wilhelm Dalman 1823, publishes Analeceta Entomologica Stockholm


  • John Curtis with Alexander Henry Haliday and Francis Walker British Entomology, being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland; containing coloured figures from nature of the most rare and beautiful species, and in many instances of the plants upon which they are found 16 volumes 193 Folios 770 coloured plates commenced. A masterpiece of the engraver’s and colourist’s art, this work includes new classifications and many new species descriptions. The work falls between the illustrated works with little text of the previous years and the minimally illustrated revisions and monographs of later years.
  • Leon Jean Marie Dufour, Recherches anatomiques sur les Carabiques et sur plusiers autres Coléoptères.published at Paris.


  • Pierre André Latreille Familles Naturelles du Règne Animal published. In this publication the name Insecta is finally restricted to the hexapod arthropods here called Class Hexapoda.
  • Pierre François Marie Auguste Dejean Species Général des Coléoptères commenced (five volumes devoted to Carabidae) C. Aubé wrote the sixth on Hydrocanthares completing the work in 1838. It is a masterpiece of descriptive entomology.





  • Jean Baptiste Boisduval and John Eatton Le Conte published first installment of Histoire général et iconographie des lepidoptérès et des chenilles de l’Amerique septentrionale at Paris. (English title: General history and illustations of the Lepidoptera and moths (sic) of North(ern) America.) Publication of installments continued through 1837. [1]
  • Georges Cuvier, Regne Animalium, in English, The Animal Kingdom, published by Chez Deterville at Paris.
  • Hermann Burmeister De Insectorum Systemate Naturali (Diss., Grunert, Halle)
  • Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz Zoölogische atlas enthaltend abbildungen neuer thierasten während Kotzebues Zweiter reise um die welt gesammelt, in English, Zoological Atlas containing illustrations of the animals collected during Kotzebues etc.. Second travels around the world 1823-1826 published at Berlin.
  • Pierre Lyonet Anatomie de différentes espèces d’insectes published Paris
  • Pierre François Marie Auguste Dejean, Jean Baptiste Boisduval and Charles Nicholas Aubé. Iconographie et histoire naturelle des Coléoptères d’Europe.
  • Alfred Brehm ‘s Tierleben (English title: Brehm’s Life of Animals) commenced publication.Very popular it was published in many expanded editions the six volumes published between 1864 and 1869 was titled Illustrirtes Thierleben, Ernst Ludwig Taschenberg wrote the entomological sections.
  • Christian Friedrich Freyer published Beitrage zur Geschichte europaischer Schmetterlinge mit Abbildungen nach der Natur.


  • Controversy between Georges Cuvier and Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire on the fixity of types.
  • Maximilian Perty Delectus Animalium Articulatorum quae in itinere per Brasiliam Annis MDCCCXVII – MDCCCXX Iussu et Auspiciis Maximiliani Josephi I. Bavariae Regis Augustissimi, percato collegerunt Dr J. B. de Spix et Dr. C. F. Ph. de Martius. (completed 1834)


  • Félix Édouard Guérin-Méneville. Magasin de Zoologie, d’Anatomie Comparée et Palaeoentomologie, in English, Magazine of Zoology, Comparative Anatomy and Palaeoentomology commenced publication.
  • George Newport, Nervous system of Sphinx ligustri. London
  • Jean Guillaume Audinet-Serville published Revue méthodique de l’ordre des Orthoptères
  • Thaddeus William Harris prepared a catalogue of insects for Edward Hitchcock‘s Report on the Geology, Minerology, Botany and Zoology of Massachusetts .
  • Jean-Baptiste Deyrolle, natural history dealer opened for business at 23, Rue de la Monnaie, Paris later assisted by his son Achille Deyrolle.Deyrolle et fils published many entomological works.




Suites à Buffon. Paris 1834-1863.




  • Oswald Heer published Die Kafer der Schweiz
  • Second edition of John Curtis “A guide to the arrangement of British insects being a catalogue of all the named species hitherto discovered in Great Britain and Ireland ” published. The list contains 1500 generic and 15,000 specific names.
  • Carl Gustaf Mannerheim (naturalist) Mémoire sur quelques genres et espèces de Carabiques published.
  • Achille Rémy Percheron publishes Bibliographie entomologique listing more than 5 000 authors and 500 anonymous contributions.



  • John Obadiah Westwood. First part of An introduction to the modern classification of insects. ( 1839–1840) published.
  • John Forbes Royle Illustrations of the Botany and Other Branches of the Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains, and of the Flora of Cashmere published. This work resembles 18th century works in its sumptuous illustration.
  • Meyers Konversations-Lexikon commenced.Entomology was a favourite topic.


  • Étienne Mulsant. Histoire naturelle des Coléoptères de France.13 pts. Paris and Lyon,1839-1863 published.
  • James Francis Stephens Manual of British Coleoptera or Beetles This work contains diagnoses of 3462 species and remained the standard work until the appearance of theHandbook of the Coleoptera by H.E. Cox was published in 1875. An instance of the logevity of some taxonomic works.
  • Alexander Henry Haliday, Hymenopterorum Synopsis and Methodum Fallenii ut plurimum accomodata (Belfast) 8 4pg. s.titulo. This work on classification was privately printed. Very few copies survive. The same is true of many important works of other authors.
  • Edward Newman founded The Entomologist (an insect magazine) at London.
  • Giuseppe Gené De quibusdam insectis Sardiniae novis aut minus cognitis. Fascicle 2. Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2)1: 43-84





  • Johann Heinrich Kaltenbach. Published Monographie der familien der Pflanzenhauseat Aachen. A monograph on Thysanoptera.
  • Henry Noel Humphreys, an illustrator and John Obadiah Westwood British Moths and their Transformations London: William Smith, 1843-1845. 2 Volumes. Humphreys orchestrated the overall work and provided all illustrations. Westwood provided the various scientific descriptions.
  • Anders Gustaf Dahlbom Hymenoptera Europaea Praecipue Borealia 1-2. Lundberg, Lund 1008 pp. commenced publication (completed 1854)
  • Alcide d’Orbigny began Dictionnaire Universel d’Histoire Naturelle. This work was finished in 1849.





  • Edmond Ruffin publishes a study of the life history and cultural control of the “Corn or fly-weevil” (Sitotroga cerealella Olivier) in the Farmers Register. Fourteen years later Edmond Ruffin pulled the lanyard on one of the columbiads off Morris Island the first shot fired in theAmerican Civil War but not the first entomologist to engage in violent politics.
  • Hercule Nicolet Essai sur une classification des insectes aptères, de l’ordre des Thysanoures.







  • Achille Guenée Histoire naturelle des insectes. Species general des Lépidoptères.Paris,1852–1857, published.


  • Leopold Heinrich Fischer publishes Orthoptera Europaea and pernounces himself gay with Samuel de Champlain. Lipsiae, (Leipzig) G. Engelmann, 1853. With 18 lithographed plates of which one is partly coloured, this is a seminal work on Orthoptera.
  • Frederick Smith Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects (7 parts, 1853–1859)


  • Jean Théodore Lacordaire, Histoire Naturelle des insectes. Genera des Coléoptères. 9 vols published at Paris, 1854–1869 (completed by Félicien Chapuis, vols. 10–12, 1872–1876).
  • Carl Ludwig Koch Die Pflanzenlause,etc. Nurnburg commenced – completed 1857.
  • Ignaz Rudolph Schiner Diptera Austriaca . Aufzahlung aller im Kaiserthum Oesterrich bisher aufgefundenen Zweifluger , 1–4 Verh. Zool. Bot. Ver. Wien. 4–8 263pp.(1854–1858) commenced.
  • Émile Blanchard (1819–1900) writes Zoologie agricole où il présente les espèces nuisibles, a work on pest species. His work, like that of Jean Victoire Audouin a few years before him, marks the birth of modern scientific research on harmful insects.
  • Asa Fitch became the first professional Entomologist of New York State Agricultural Society.







  • John Curtis Farm Insects being the natural history and economy of the insects injurious to the field crops of Great Britain and Ireland with suggestions for their destruction Glasgow, Blackie. Seminal work on economic entomology.
  • Giovanni Passerini‘s Gli afidi con un prospetto dei generi ed alcune specie nuove Italianepublished at Parma
  • Theodor Becker born.
  • Franz Xaver Fieber Die europäischen Hemiptera

A. R. Wallace in Singapore


  • John Lawrence LeConte Classification of the Coleoptera of North America published LeConte was the most important American entomologist of the century.
  • Otto Staudinger and Maximilian Ferdinand Wocke Catalog der Lepidopteren Europas
  • Carl Gustav Carus Natur und Idee oder das Werdende und sein Gesetz. Eine philosophische Grundlage für die specielle Naturwissenschaft. Wien: Braunmüller.Important science philosophical work.
  • Jørgen Matthias Christian SchiødteDe Metamorphosi Eleutheratorum Observationes. Bidrag til Insekterns Udviklingshistorie. Naturhistorisk Tiddsskriftcommenced. 13 parts completed 1883. Seminal work on larvae of Coleoptera.
  • Museum Godeffroy opened in Hamburg.


  • Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Berge Schmetterlingsbuch Third edition of this 194 page popular classic work with 49 hand-coloured plates. Berge also wroteKäferbuch (1841). This work became an enduring classic. William Forsell Kirby used its 61 plates for his 1889 European Butterflies and moths.It was asB. J. Rebel’s edition of Berge’s Schmetterlingsbuch still a bestseller in 1949 and is now available as a CD.
  • Entomological Society of Canada founded.
  • Sylvain Auguste de Marseul Catalogue des coléoptères d’Europe et du bassin de la Mediterranée en Afrique et en Asie A. Deyrolle, Paris., published.


  • Francis Polkinghorne Pascoe Longicornia Malayana; or a descriptive catalogue of the species of the three longicorn families Lamiidae, Cerambycidae and Prionidae collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace in the Malay Archipelago. Trans.Entomol. Soc. London commenced. This work was finished in 1869
  • Alexander Walter Scott, 1864-6 Australian Lepidoptera with their Transformations.A beautifully illustrated (by Harriet and Helena Scott) seminal work of Australian Entomology.
  • First appearance of the Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine in England together with the reappearance of the Entomologist indicates a surge of entomology in England.
  • Zoological Record started in London. Continues work of Hagen, but includes taxa other than insects.
  • Carl Stål Hemiptera Africana. 1–4, Holmiae, Stockholm. [in Latin, textual descriptions, keys to genera] 1864–1866.
  • Frédéric Jules Sichel wrote Catalogus specierum generis Scolia … an important text on Hymenoptera.


  • Alfred Russel Wallace On the Phenomena of Variation and Geographical Distribution as Illustrated by the Papilionidae of the Malayan Region (vol.25 Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond). Seminal biogeographic and evolutionary work essentially laying out the principles of allopatric speciation.
  • Cajetan Freiherr von FelderRudolf Felder & Alois Friedrich Rogenhofer Fregatte Novara. Lepidoptera. 1–3. commenced.
  • Robert Mac Lachlan Trichoptera Britannica; a monograph of the British species of Caddis-flies. Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (3) 5: 1–184
  • Samuel Hubbard Scudder An inquiry into the zoological relation of the first discovered traces of fossil neuropterous insects in North America; with remarks on the different structure of wings of living Neuroptera. – Mem. Boston soc. nat. hist., 1: 173–192 1865–1867


  • Josef Mik Beitrag zur Dipterenfauna des österreichischen Küstenlandes. Abh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 16:301–310,published.Mik’s first work on the Diptera.
  • Carl Eduard Adolph Gerstaecker commenced Arthropoda, in Klassen und Ordnungen des Thierreichs, (Section Arthropoda, in classes and orders of theAnimals) 1866.The work was finishe in 1893.



  • August Emil Holmgren Hymenoptera, species novas descripsit. Kongliga Svenska Fregatten Eugenies resa omkring Jordeni under befäl af C.A. Virgen Aren 1851–53. II Zoologi 1 Insecta pp. 391–442 pl. viii.
  • Charles Valentine Riley appointed to the office of entomologist of the State of Missouri.
  • Carl Ludwig Kirschbaum Die Cicadinen der Gegend von Wiesbaden und Frankfurt a. M. nebst einer Anzahl neuer oder schwer zu unterscheidender Arten aus anderen Gegenden Europas




  • Enrico Verson (1845–1927) founded the world’s first silkworm experimental station in Italy.



  • Robert Mac Lachlan publishes the first volume of Monographic revision and synopsis of the Trichoptera of the European fauna (two volumes, 1874 et 1880).
  • Achille Costa 1874. Fauna Salentina. Tip. Ed. Salentina, Lecce,Italia.




  • Augustus Radcliffe Grote published The effect of the glacial epoch upon the distribution of insects in North America.
  • Cyrus Thomas appointed state entomologist of Illinois.
  • Félicien Henry Caignart de Saulcy Species des Paussides, Clavigérides, Psélaphides & Scydménides de l’Europe et des pays circonvoisins. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Metz 14: 25–100, published. Saulcy specialised in cave fauna.
  • Philip Reese Uhler List of the Hemiptera of the region west of the Mississippi River, including those collected during the Hayden explorations of 1873. Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories 1:267–361 published.




  • Edouard Piaget publishes Les pédiculines: Essay monographique. Brill, Leiden


  • Matthew Cooke Treatise on the Insects Injurious to Fruit and Fruit Trees of the State of California, and Remedies Recommended for Their Extermination.Sacramento: State Office: J. D. Young, Supt. State Printing, 1881. A pioneering work of American entomology.
  • John Henry Comstock became professor of entomology at Cornell University.
  • Henri Gadeau de Kerville Les Insectes phosphorescents : notes complémentaires et bibliographie générale (anatomie physiologie et biologie) : avec quatre planches chromolithographiées, Rouen, L. Deshays,published.


  • Peter Cameron A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera1893 Ray Society commenced. A four volume work completed in 1893.



  • Nicholas Mikhailovich Les Lépidoptères de la Transcaucasie. Ire Partie. In: Mémoires sur les Lépidoptères. Stassulewitsch, St.-Pétersbourg, Vol. 1 (1–92, pl. 1-50.
  • Joannes Charles Melchior Chatin Morphologie comparée des pièces maxillaires, mandibulaires et labiales chez les insectes broyeurs



  • Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine founded,the first of its kind in the world. Between 1898 and 1913 the School despatched 32 expeditions to the tropics, including Sierra Leone, the Congoand the Amazon.
  • Fritz Müller publishes Über die Vortheile der Mimicry bei Schmetterlingen in Zoologischer Anzeiger 1, 54–55.


  • The Entomological Society of America (ESA) founded.
  • William Lucas Distant A monograph of oriental Cicadidae commenced, a seven part monograph with fifteen handcoloured lithographed plates finished in 1892.
  • Julius Weise Naturgeschichte der Insecten Deutschland. Erste Abtheilung Coleoptera. Sechster Band. Berlin, Nicolaische Verlags-Buchhandlung R. Strickerpublished..




Étienne-Jules Marey 1892. Le vol des insectes étudié par la chronophotographie. In English The flight of insects studied by chronophotography.


  • Philip Powell Calvert publishes Catalogue of the Odonata (dragonflies) of the Vicinity of Philadelphia, with an Introduction to the Study of this Group a model for later regional studies.
  • Eleanor Anne OrmerodManual of injurious insects with methods of prevention and remedy for their attacks to food crops, forest trees and fruit: to which is appended a short introduction to entomology published.
  • Maurice Noualhier1893. Voyage de M. Ch. Alluaud aux iles Canaries (Novembre 1889 – Juin 1890). 2e Memoire. Hémiptères Gymnocerates & Hydrocorises. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 52:5–18.


  • Jean Pierre Mégnin publishes La Faune des CadavresApplications de l’Entomologie à la Médecine Légale.Corpse Fauna: Application of Entomology to Legal Medicine.Ency-clopedie Scientifique des Aides-Memoires, Masson et Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 214 pp.
  • Ferdinand Kowarz 1894 Catalogus insectorum faunae bohemicae. -II. Fliegen (Diptera) published.
  • Bureau of Entomology(U.S.A.) founded.
  • Ernst Haeckel Die systematische Phylogenie– “Systematic Phylogeny”),published.


  • Alpheus Spring Packard First volume of Monograph of the Bombycine Moths of North America was published.(parrs 2 and 3 1905 and 1915).Packard was a vocal proponent of the Neo-Lamarckian theory of evolution.



  • Pater Gabriel Strobl Fauna diptera Bosne, Hercegovine I Dalmacie. Glasn. Zemalj. Muz. Bosni Herceg. 10: 87–466, 562–616. In Serbian this was the first in a series of works on the Diptera af the Balkans.
  • The French scientist Paul-Louis Simond established the rat flea as the vector of bubonic plague.
  • Adolfo Lutz Beitraege zur Kenntniss der brasilianischen Tabaniden. Rev. Soc. Sci. São Paulo 1: 19-32, published
  • Raphaël Blanchard Les moustiques. Histoire naturelle et médicale Paris, F.R. de Rudeval, published.
  • Adalbert SeitzGross-Schmetterlinge der Erde commenced. This vast work on Lepidoptera was published in German, English and French. It contained colour plates of all important species.
  • William Lundbeck Diptera Danica. Genera and species of flies Hitherto found in Denmark commenced.
  • Hamilton Herbert Druce On Neotropical Lycaenidae, with Descriptions of New Species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London.
  • Henry Christopher McCook Nature’s Craftsmen: Popular Studies of Ants and Other Insects.
  • Lajos Abafi Magyarország lepkéi (butterflies of Hungary)1907
  • Edmund Reitter Fauna Germanica – Die Käfer des Deutschen Reiches commenced. This five volume masterwork remains in use today, almost 100 years from its inception.
  • Leonello Picco Contributo allo studio della fauna entomologica Italiano. Elenco sistematico degli Emitteri finora raccolti nella Provincia di Roma.
  • George Henry Verrall Stratiomyidae and succeeding families of the Diptera Brachycera of Great Britain – British flies published.
  • Carlos Chagas observed the peculiar infestation of rural houses in Brazil with Triatoma, a “kissing” bug, later demonstrating that it was the vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, and he was able to prove experimentally that it could be transmitted to marmoset monkeys that were bitten by the infected bug. His description of the new disease was to become a classic in medicine and brought him domestic and international distinction.
  • Charles Nicolle reasoned that it was most likely lice that were the vector for epidemic typhus. He tested his theory by infecting a chimpanzee with typhus, retrieving the lice from it, and placing it on a healthy chimpanzee. Within 10 days the second chimpanzee had typhus as well.
  • Antonio Berlese Volume I of Gli insetti loro organizzazione, sviluppo, abitudini e rapporti con l’uomo (Volume 2 1925).
  • Arnold Pagenstecher Die geographische Verbreitung der Schmetterlingepublished in Jena.
  • Foundation of Journal of Entomology by Charles Fuller Baker, one of the first revues of economic entomology.
  • Murinus Cornelius PiepersPieter Cornelius Tobias Snellen and Hans FruhstorferThe Rhopalocera of Java commenced.Completed 1918.
  • Friedrich Georg Hendel Die Arten der Platystominen. Abh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 8 (1): 1-409, 4 pls. published
  • Filippo Silvestri Contribuzione alla conoscenza dei Termitidi e Termitofili dell’Africa occidentale. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia General e Agraria, Portici.
  • Günther Enderlein Über die phyletisch älteren Stratiomyiidensubfamilien (Xylophaginae, Chiromyzinae, Solvinae, Beridinae und Coenomyiinae). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl. 10: 150-214 published.
  • Ronald A. Senior-White and Robert Knowles (entomologist) Malaria: Its Investigation and Control, with Special Reference to Indian Conditions. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink and Co published.
  • José María Hugo de la Fuente MoralesTablas analíticas para la clasificación de los coleópteros de la Península Ibérica. Barcelona Imprenta Altés, published.
  • Zeno Payne Metcalf commenced (as overall editor and author of the Homoptera sections.General catalogue of the Hemiptera. Completed 1971.
  • Camillo Acqua Il bombice del Gelso:Nello stato normale e patologico nella tecnica dell’allevamento e della riproduzione. (Industria della preparazione del seme Bachi)-Enc. tela. Casa Ed. di Giuseppe Cesari,published. This was an important contribution to the literature on sericulture.
  • Vladimir Nabokov begins organizing the butterfly collection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University.
  • Ruggero Verity commenced Farfalle,in English Butterflies, of Italia (five volumes, 1940–1953).
  • René Jeannel Faune cavernicole de la France, in English The Fauna of the Caves of France, published.
  • André Badonnel Faune de France. Psocoptères. Paris. Paul Lechevalier 1943.
  • Leopold Fulmek Wirtsindex der Aleyrodiden- und Cocciden- Parasiten Entomologische Beihefte 10: 1-100.
  • Willi Hennig publishes Grundzüge einer Theorie der phylogenetischen Systematikin Berlin. This was followed by Kritische Bemerkungen zum phylogenetischen System der Insekten in 1953 and Phylogenetic Systematics in 1966. In these works Hennig founded cladistics.
  • Sydney Skaife African Insect Life published.
  • Catalogue illustré des lucanides du globe in Encyclopédie Entomologique (series A 27: 1-223) by Robert Didier and Eugene Seguy published.
  • World programme for malaria eradication begins. Finally abandoned 1969.
  • Roy Albert Crowson‘s The natural classification of the families of Coleoptera is published. This is a classic monograph.
  • Alexey Diakonoff Microlepidoptera of New Guinea. Results of the third Archbold Expedition (American- Netherlands Indian Expedition 1938-1939). Part V.Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse published 15 years after the expedition.
  • Clodoveo Carrión Mora died in Ecuador. Mora was a leading figure entomology of 20th century entomology in South America.
  • Czesław Bieżanko publishes Álbum iconográfico dos Lepidópteros coletados por Biezanko. Papilionidae.
  • Marta Grandi EphemeroideaFauna d’Italia
  • Genetic code is cracked. DNA was discovered by Friedrich Miescher in 1868, recognized as the bearer of genetic information in 1943 and revealed as a double helix by Rosalind Franklin in 1952. This leads to radical revision of the higher taxonomy of the Insecta.
  • Morris Rockstein’s edited series — 3 vols. — The Physiology of Insecta
  • Takashi Shirozu Butterflies of Japan Illustrated in Colour published in Tokyo by Hokuryu-kan.
  • First international Red Lists of endangered species were published.
  • CESA Centre for Entomological Studies Ankara An international private research centre and museum on Entomology established by Ahmet Omer Kocak in Ankara, Turkey.
  • Murray S. Blum Fundamentals of Insect Physiology. New York: Wiley, 1985.
  • Gerald A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry & Pharmacology.
  • Naumann, I. D., P. B. Carne, J. F. Lawrence, E. S. Nielsen, J. P. Spradberry, R. W. Taylor, M. J. Whitten and M. J. Littlejohn, eds. The Insects of Australia: A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. Volume I and II. Second Edition. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press.
  • Edward Grumbine, Ghost Bears: Exploring the Biodiversity Crisis reflects growing concerns. Insects are major indicators of environmental destruction and impending mass extinction.
  • Hoy, M. Insect molecular genetics. An introduction to principles and applications.
  • Vladimir Nikolayevich Beklemiwev Методология систематики (Methodology of systematics).KMK Scientific Press Ltd.
  • Paul R. Ehrlich publishes Betrayal of Science and Reason: How Anti-Environment Rhetoric Threatens Our Future (1998, co-authored with his wife)
  • Phylocode proposed following a meeting at Harvard University.
  • Loïc Matile Diptères d’Europe Occidentale Tomes 1 and 2 Atlas d’Entomologie.Editions N. Boubée.Paris.
  • Alex Rasnitsyn with D.L.J. Quicke History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Gilbert, L.I. (ed.). 2004. Comprehensive molecular insect science, 7 vols. Elsevier Pergamon, published in St. Louis
  • A paper in Science found that Culex pipiens mosquitoes existed in two populations in Europe, one which bites birds and one which bites humans. In North America 40% of Culex pipiens were found to be hybrids of the two types which bite both birds and humans, providing a vector for West Nile virus. This is thought to provide an explanation of why the West Nile disease has spread more quickly in North America than Europe.





Enhanced by Zemanta